Jim Powell wrote in 2003 at Cato:
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933) aimed to help farmers by cutting farm production and forcing up food prices. Less production meant less work for thousands of poor black sharecroppers. In addition, blacks were among the 100 million consumers forced to pay higher food prices because of the AAA.Powell also cites other New Deal legislation as having racist effects if not outright intent:
- The Wagner Act, which allowed closed shops that were de facto discriminatory in many instances.
- The Tennessee Valley Authority, which flooded lands worked by sharecroppers but gave them no compensation.
- The Works Project Administration, which channeled money predominantly into states with comparatively few blacks; blacks could be counted on to vote for FDR anyway. Consequently, their votes were unimportant.